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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 4 English Language Arts and Reading
TITLE : Unit 05B: Understanding Connections Across All Genres SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

This unit bundles student expectations that focus on the relationships across and between genres including literary works and informational text in order for students to make connections and summarize information. Students examine a variety of forms of text representing a wide range of themes and topics and compare and contrast features specific to the genre. Students continue to make inferences, summarize, and provide textual evidence during reading. Students communicate understanding of text through oral and written expression and make important personal and world connections within and across different contexts and genres.

In previous units, students explored literary works and informational texts for the purpose of understanding genre features and to practice using reading and writing processes in order to understand and communicate meaning. During this unit, students use previously learned skills to examine a variety of genres presenting similar ideas while recognizing features specific to each genre. Students analyze texts by making comparisons in purpose and perspective. Students examine thematic links and logical relationships within and across texts. Using the writing process, students continue to compose original text to communicate their own understanding and ideas. Students explore language while continuing to build on the principles that vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, and grammar are critical to the ability to comprehend and communicate effectively. Word study is inclusive of genre specific vocabulary, literary terms, and appropriate vocabulary from literature and is experienced before, during, and after reading. In Unit 06, students utilize skills and processes learned to examine purpose and message in persuasive texts and media.


Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Readers create connections to make text personally relevant and useful.

Interpretation – Connections, Relevance, Understanding

Form – Fiction, Poetry, Drama, Expository, Persuasive, Procedural

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Fictional stories sometimes contain information that mirrors a person’s biography/autobiography.

Interpretation – Information

Form – Autobiography, Biography, Tall Tale

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Readers use strategies to support understanding of text.

Interpretation – Understanding, Connections, Relevance

Perception – Thoughts

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Readers use writing to communicate deeper understanding of texts.

An extensive vocabulary enhances oral and written communication.

Interpretation – Vocabulary

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS:

  • Comprehension is made easier when thinking is organized in accordance with the way the author organized his/her ideas. Students need to recognize that texts are different to an extent, but depending on the author’s purpose, the topic, and the genre, texts employ different structural patterns.

Unit Vocabulary

  • Informational texttext that presents information, including expository, persuasive, and procedural text
  • Literary textwritten works that are generally recognized as having artistic value; basic forms of literary text are prose fiction, drama, poetry, and literary nonfiction.
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


This chart provides an organizational structure for the TEKS included in this unit. Ongoing TEKS may be reviewed during whole group and small group instruction or applied by students through meaningful practice.

Instructional Components Chart (*ELAR / SLAR Only')

Instructional Components TEKS Ongoing TEKS Formative Assessment Examples

Word Study

TEKS
Vocabulary Development: 4.2A, 4.2B, 4.2C, 4.2D
Ongoing TEKS
Vocabulary Development: 4.2E

Informal Language Sample

Observation Data

Teacher-Student Conference

Checklist

Rubric

Writer’s Notebook

Reader’s Notebook

Reading Log

Word Study Notebook

Oral Reading Fluency Check

Portfolio

Shared Reading/Independent Reading

TEKS
Vocabulary Development: 4.2B
Theme and Genre: 4.3A, 4.3B
Fiction: 4.6A, 4.6B, 4.7A
Expository Text: 4.11A
Media Literacy: 4.14B
Comprehension Skills: 4.Fig19C, 4.Fig19D, 4.Fig19E, 4.Fig19F
Ongoing TEKS
Fluency: 4.1A
Poetry: 4.4A
Drama: 4.5A
Fiction: 4.6C
Sensory Language: 4.8A
Independent Reading: 4.9A
Culture and History: 4.10A
Expository Text: 4.11B, 4.11C, 4.11D
Procedural Texts: 4.13A, 4.13B, 4.18C
Listening: 4.27A, 4.27B
Speaking: 4.28A
Teamwork: 4.29A
Comprehension Skills: 4.Fig19A, 4.Fig19B

Writing

TEKS
Writing Process: 4.15B, 4.15C, 4.15D
Literary Texts: 4.16A
Ongoing TEKS
Writing Process: 4.15A, 4.15E
Literary Texts: 4.16B, 4.17A
Expository and Procedural Texts: 4.18A.i, 4.18A.ii, 4.18A.iii, 4.18B
Conventions: 4.20A.i, 4.20A.ii, 4.20A.iii, 4.20A.iv, 4.20A.v, 4.20A.vi, 4.20A.vii, 4.20A.viii, 4.20B, 4.20C
Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation: 4.21A, 4.21B.i, 4.21B.ii, 4.21B.iii, 4.21C.i, 4.21C.ii
Spelling: 4.22A.i, 4.22A.ii, 4.22A.iii, 4.22A.iv, 4.22A.v, 4.22B, 4.22C, 4.22D
Listening: 4.27A, 4.27B
Speaking: 4.28A
Teamwork: 4.29A
The phase 2 College Readiness English Language Arts and Reading vertical alignment team found that the College Readiness Standards in English Language Arts and Reading are well aligned with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills.
TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Definitions from Standards for Ensuring Success from Kindergarten to College and Career Spring 2012 Update, 2012 Texas Education Agency / University of Texas System are in bolded, blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA) is labeled.
4.2 Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.B - English/Language Arts/Reading. Understand new vocabulary and concepts and use them accurately in reading, speaking, and writing.
4.2A Determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes.
Readiness Standard

Determine

THE MEANING OF GRADE-LEVEL ACADEMIC ENGLISH WORDS DERIVED FROM LATIN, GREEK, OR OTHER LINGUISTIC ROOTS AND AFFIXES

Possible examples:

  • Latin – e.g., audi (audience, auditory), vis (vision, invisible), dict (dictator, contradict), able, ible
  • Greek – e.g., auto (autobiography, autograph), bio (biology, biography), tele (telegraph, telepathy), meter (speedometer, perimeter, thermometer), ology, phobia
  • Other affixes and roots as found in appropriate grade-level text in multi content areas

Affix – a word element, such as a prefix or suffix, that occurs before or after a root or base word to modify its meaning (e.g., the prefix un- and the suffix -able in unbelievable)

Academic English words

  1. words used in the learning of academic subject matter in formal educational context that are associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms, technical language, and speech registers related to each field of study
  2. words used during instruction and exams, and in textbooks

These could include words that are specific to content (e.g., hyperbole, metaphor, and meter) or that are related to learning tasks (e.g., compare/contrast, differentiate, and infer).

STAAR Note:
Questions associated with 4.2A may refer students back to the paragraph in the passage that contains the word being assessed. Context, along with word parts, is important in determining word meaning. Refer to 4.2B for the standard addressing context clues.

4.2B Use the context of the sentence (e.g., in-sentence example or definition) to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple meaning words.
Readiness Standard

Use

CONTEXT OF THE SENTENCE

Context – the words, sentences, or passages that precede or follow a specific word, sentence, or passage

To determine

THE MEANING OF  UNFAMILIAR WORDS OR MULTIPLE MEANING WORDS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify and use relationships among surrounding words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs
  • Use in-sentence examples
  • Use definitions in the sentence

Multiple meaning word – a word that has more than one meaning (e.g., trunk)

4.2C Complete analogies using knowledge of antonyms and synonyms (e.g., boy:girl as male:____ or girl:woman as boy:_____).

Complete

ANALOGIES USING KNOWLEDGE OF ANTONYMS AND SYNONYMS

Examples:

  • Boy:girl as male:female (antonym)
  • Girl:woman as boy:man (synonym)

Analogy – a vocabulary exercise in which an association between a concept and its attribute is present (e.g., hot:cold as north:_____)

4.2D Identify the meaning of common idioms.

Identify

THE MEANING OF COMMON IDIOMS

Idiom – an expression that has a different meaning from the literal meaning of its individual words (e.g., have the upper hand or under the weather). Idioms are particular to a given language and usually cannot be translated literally.

Possible examples:

  • Eat like a bird
  • Fit as a fiddle
  • Finding a needle in a haystack
  • A breathe of fresh air
4.Fig19 Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author’s message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers. The student is expected to:
TxCCRS CDS.I.D - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Academic behaviors
TxCCRS CDS.II.A - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Reading across the curriculum
4.Fig19C Monitor and adjust comprehension (e.g., using background knowledge, creating sensory images, rereading a portion aloud, generating questions).

Monitor, Adjust

COMPREHENSION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use background knowledge
  • Create sensory images (images created by using the five senses – sight, smell, sound, touch, taste)
  • Re-read a portion aloud
  • Use contextual clues (refer to 4.2B)
  • Generate literal, interpretive, and evaluative questions (refer to 4.Fig19B)
  • Ask for help
4.Fig19D Make inferences about text using textual evidence to support understanding.
Readiness Standard (Fiction)
Supporting Standard (Literary Nonfiction, Poetry, and Drama)

Make

INFERENCES ABOUT TEXT

Including, but not limited to:
Literary Text (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, literary nonfiction)

  • Structural elements
  • Literary elements
  • Sensory language
  • Figurative language
  • Purpose of elements and language in sections of text and/or specific sentences

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each literary genre for additional information on inferring in each type of literary text.

Informational Text (e.g., expository, persuasive, embedded procedural text/graphics)

  • Purpose of informational text
  • Main idea of whole texts and sections of texts
  • Details that support the central idea or controlling idea

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each informational genre for additional information on inferring in each type of informational text.

Inference – a logical guess made by connecting bits of information. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions.

Drawing conclusions – a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information, and comes to a decision. The conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.

Use

TEXTUAL EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

Textual evidence – specific details or facts found in the text that support what is inferred

4.Fig19E Summarize information in text, maintaining meaning and logical order.
Readiness Standard (Fiction)
Supporting Standard (Literary Nonfiction, Poetry, and Drama)

Summarize

INFORMATION IN TEXT, MAINTAINING MEANING AND LOGICAL ORDER

Including, but not limited to:

  • Brief, coherent sentences that communicate the key information, ideas, or events in logical order
  • Main ideas from the beginning, middle, and end

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

STAAR Note:
Students may be required to summarize in multiple genres, including drama, literary nonfiction, expository text, and fiction.

4.Fig19F Make connections (e.g., thematic links, author analysis) between literary and informational texts with similar ideas and provide textual evidence.
Readiness Standard

Make

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN LITERARY AND INFORMATIONAL TEXTS WITH SIMILAR IDEAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thematic links
  • Author analysis
  • Similarities and differences in:
    • topic
    • overarching ideas
    • details
    • description
    • purpose
    • character thoughts, actions, and traits
    • point of view

Thematic link – a logical connection made between or among texts that share similar themes

Possible literary genres:

  • Fiction
  • Literary nonfiction
  • Poetry
  • Drama

Possible informational genres:

  • Expository
  • Persuasive
  • Procedural

Provide

TEXTUAL EVIDENCE

Textual evidence – specific details or facts found in text that support what is inferred

4.3 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre.

Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT THEME IN DIFFERENT, CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXTS

Including but not limited to:

  • Determine the theme (message/lesson) in various literary genres (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, literary nonfiction)
  • Make inferences about details that support the theme (message/lesson/important idea)

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT GENRE IN DIFFERENT, CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXTS

Including but not limited to:

  • Distinguish characteristics of various genres (e.g., biography – based on real-life experiences, realistic fiction – events that take place could happen)

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

STAAR Note:
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19D.

TxCCRS E/LAS.II.C - English/Language Arts/Reading. Describe, analyze, and evaluate information within and across literary and other texts from a variety of cultures and historical periods.
4.3A Summarize and explain the lesson or message of a work of fiction as its theme.
Supporting Standard

Summarize, Explain

THE LESSON OR MESSAGE OF A WORK OF FICTION AS ITS THEME

 Including, but not limited to:

  • Interpret the same meaning as the author’s message

Possible works of fiction:

  • Fable
  • Legend
  • Myth
  • Historical fiction
  • Realistic fiction

Summarize to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Theme – the central or universal idea of a piece of fiction or the main idea of a nonfiction essay. Themes are ideas or concepts that relate to morals and values and speak to the human experience.

Possible examples of theme:

  • Good friends are important
  • Believe in yourself
  • Hard work leads to rewards
4.3B Compare and contrast the adventures or exploits of characters (e.g., the trickster) in traditional and classical literature.
Supporting Standard

Compare, Contrast

THE ADVENTURES OR EXPLOITS OF CHARACTERS IN TRADITIONAL AND CLASSICAL LITERATURE

Including, but not limited to:

  • The trickster
  • Other characters in traditional and classical literature

Adventure – an exciting or unusual experience

Exploit – a notable or heroic act

Trickster – a dishonest, cunning character who cheats others by trickery

Traditional literature – stories that were originally oral and later became written text

Classical literature – literature that is widely acknowledged for its outstanding and enduring qualities

4.6 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT THE STRUCTURE AND ELEMENTS OF FICTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to the whole story
  • Make inferences related to a part of the story
  • Make inferences related to structure of fiction (e.g., organization, paragraphs)
  • Make inferences related to particular elements of fiction
    • Character/narrator - actions, thoughts, motivation, qualities/traits
    • Plot/events
    • Setting
  • Summarize fictional text in ways that maintain meaning and logical order

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in fiction

STAAR Note:

  • This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19D and/or Figure 19E.
  • Many STAAR items that assess summary include two choices that are plausible. Students must be able to compare the choices to determine which one is the BEST.
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
4.6A Sequence and summarize the plot's main events and explain their influence on future events.
Readiness Standard

Sequence, Summarize

THE PLOT’S MAIN EVENTS 

Including, but not limited to:

  • Order events chronologically (possibly using a graphic organizer)
  • Determine the main idea of a portion of the story
  • Identify how an event affects the overall story (cause-effect)
  • Identify important story elements including problem and solution

Plot – the basic sequence of events in a story. In conventional stories, plot has three main parts: rising action, climax, and falling action. The plot includes the problem and solution.

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main ideas Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Explain

THEIR INFLUENCE ON FUTURE EVENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Predict future outcomes and actions throughout the story and at the end

Note:
Even though students are not required to know the specific plot elements (e.g., rising action, problem, climax, solution, falling action) in reading, students are required to write an imaginative story that builds a plot to a climax and contains details about the characters and setting. Refer to 4.16A for related writing standard.

4.6B Describe the interaction of characters including their relationships and the changes they undergo.
Readiness Standard

Describe

THE INTERACTION OF CHARACTERS INCLUDING THEIR RELATIONSHIPS AND THE CHANGES THEY UNDERGO

Interactions include what characters do (actions) and/or say (dialogue)

Possible examples of character changes:

  • Intellectual, emotional, and physical change
  • From beginning to end
  • Changes in relationships
  • Before an event and after an event in the plot

Possible examples of relationships:

  • Family
  • Friend
  • Enemy

Interactions between characters may also reveal character thoughts/feelings, traits, motivations, and actions.

4.7 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT THE VARIED STRUCTURAL PATTERNS AND FEATURES OF LITERARY NONFICTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to the whole literary nonfiction text including author's purpose
  • Make inferences related to a section or part of the literary nonfiction text
  • Make inferences related to the structure of literary nonfiction (e.g., organization, main idea, cause-effect) including author's purpose
  • Make inferences related to features of literary nonfiction (e.g., subject of a biography or author of an autobiography, setting, events)
  • Make inferences related to specific details in literary nonfiction text including author's purpose
  • Make inferences supported by text features (e.g., headings, subheadings, bold print, captions, key words, italics, table of contents, etc.)
  • Summarize literary nonfiction text in ways that maintain meaning and logical order

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Respond by providing

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in literary nonfiction text

 

STAAR Note:
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19D and/or Figure 19E.

TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
4.7A Identify similarities and differences between the events and characters' experiences in a fictional work and the actual events and experiences described in an author's biography or autobiography.
Supporting Standard

Identify

SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE EVENTS AND CHARACTERS’ EXPERIENCES IN A FICTIONAL WORK AND THE ACTUAL EVENTS AND EXPERIENCES DESCRIBED IN AN AUTHOR’S BIOGRAPHY OR AUTOBIOGRAPHY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Compare and contrast events and characters’ experiences in a fictional work and a biography or autobiography

Autobiography – the life story of a person as told by himself or herself

Biography – an account or interpretations of a series of events making up a person’s life

Literary nonfiction – a type of narrative based on actual persons, places, and things. In literary nonfiction, a writer may construct text in any number of ways and is not limited to the organizational patterns normally associated with nonfiction texts. (e.g., biography, autobiography, memoir)

Note:
Subjects of a biography and autobiography do not need to be famous, infamous, or outstanding for their lives to communicate important lessons about people and society.

4.11 Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text.

Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT EXPOSITORY TEXT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to the whole text
  • Make inferences related to a section of the text
  • Make inferences related to particular sentences, ideas, or details
  • Summarize expository text in ways that maintain meaning and logical order

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING
Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in expository text

 

STAAR Note:

  • This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19D and/or Figure 19E.
  • STAAR items that are dual-coded with this Knowledge and Skills Statement and Figure19D may be assessed by:
    • Providing information from the text and asking students to make an inference. For example, sentences from the article are given in a textbox followed by the question, “The author includes this information to —”
    • Providing the inference in the question stem and asking students to choose evidence from the text that supports the inference. For example, “Which of the following sentences supports the idea that (provided inference)?”
  • Many STAAR items that assess summary include two choices that are very plausible. Students must be able to compare the choices to determine which one is the BEST.
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
4.11A Summarize the main idea and supporting details in text in ways that maintain meaning.
Readiness Standard

Summarize

THE MAIN IDEA AND SUPPORTING DETAILS IN TEXT IN WAYS THAT MAINTAIN MEANING

Summary may include, but is not limited to:

  • Brief, coherent sentence(s) that communicate the key information in logical order
  • Main ideas from the beginning, middle, and end

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Main idea – the overall message of an entire text or section of a text (e.g., Polar bears are becoming endangered.)

Facts/Details – support the main idea by telling how, when, what, where, why, how much, and how many. Some details may be explicitly stated in the text; however, some may need to be inferred based on other details and/or the main idea.

Note:

  • Subtitles may help students determine the main idea of sections of text.
  • Refer to 4.Fig19E for related comprehension skills.

STAAR Note:

Questions associated with 4.11A may ask for main idea of a paragraph or multiple paragraphs.

4.14 Reading/Media Literacy.

Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:


Supporting Standard

Use

COMPREHENSION SKILLS

Analyze

HOW WORDS, IMAGES, AND SOUNDS WORK TOGETHER IN VARIOUS FORMS TO IMPACT MEANING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Interpret words, images, and sounds in media and consider their effect on meaning
  • Determine the purpose of embedded media
  • Determine how embedded media supports information in the text
  • Determine how details in the text connect to information and/or ideas being presented in embedded media

STAAR Note:

  • In 2013, 2014, and 2015, all dual-coded media items in 3rd-5th grade were assessed using embedded photographs.
  • This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19D.
TxCCRS E/LAS.IV.A - English/Language Arts/Listening. Apply listening skills as an individual and as a member of a group in a variety of settings (e.g., lectures, discussions, conversations, team projects, presentations, interviews).
TxCCRS CDS.I.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Reasoning
TxCCRS CDS.II.E - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Technology
4.14B Explain how various design techniques used in media influence the message (e.g., pacing, close-ups, sound effects).

Explain

HOW VARIOUS DESIGN TECHNIQUES USED IN MEDIA INFLUENCE THE MESSAGE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sound (e.g., background music, volume, sound effects)
  • Movement (e.g., feet moving quickly, hair blowing in the wind, pacing)
  • Visuals (e.g., pictures, graphs, graphics, colors, shapes, close- ups)
4.15 Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
4.15B Develop drafts by categorizing ideas and organizing them into paragraphs.
Readiness Standard

Develop

DRAFTS BY CATEGORIZING IDEAS AND ORGANIZING THEM INTO PARAGRAPHS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Organize the draft according to genre and purpose
  • Include ideas and details that are strongly related and contribute to the central idea or message of the piece
  • Develop a draft that is focused and  well controlled with meaningful transitions and connections
  • Choose words that are purposeful and precise and support the overall meaning (or purpose) of the piece

Organization of a paper – the development of ideas in a coherent manner. In a well-organized paper, main points should be supported, each idea should flow sequentially and logically to the next idea, transitions should connect ideas, and extraneous sentences should not be included.

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

Word choice – the author’s thoughtful use of precise vocabulary to fully convey meaning to the reader

Note:
This is the second step in the writing process, often referred to as drafting. The focus is on developing ideas and the message, not on mechanics.

4.15C Revise drafts for coherence, organization, use of simple and compound sentences, and audience.
Readiness Standard

Revise

DRAFTS FOR COHERENCE, ORGANIZATION, USE OF SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SENTENCES, AND AUDIENCE

Revise – changing, adding, or deleting words, phrases, or sentences to clarify and/or to enhance the message based on the intended audience

Including, but not limited to:

  • Improve coherence
  • Review and adjust organization
  • Use varied sentences, both simple and compound, that are purposeful and well controlled to enhance the effectiveness of the piece
  • Provide appropriate details to support main idea and/or eliminate extraneous details
  • Include sensory details to enhance the message
  • Incorporate precise words that create visual images

Coherent – logically ordered, with consistent relations of parts to the whole (e.g., a coherent essay)

Word choice – the author’s thoughtful use of precise vocabulary to fully convey meaning to the reader

Organization of a Paper – the development of ideas in a coherent manner. In a well-organized paper, main points should be supported, each idea should flow sequentially and logically to the next idea, transitions should connect ideas, and extraneous sentences should not be included.

Simple sentence – a sentence with one clause (e.g., the chicken crossed the road)

Compound sentence – a sentence composed of at least two independent clauses linked with a conjunction (e.g., Sam talked, and Emma listened)

Audience – the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium

Revisions may include, but are not limited to:

  • Revise entire sentences including, but not limited to:
    • Run-on sentences and comma splices
    • Order of words and phrases (e.g., misplaced prepositional phrases)
    • Repetition/Redundancy
  • Revise single words and phrases including, but not limited to:
    • General vs. specific
    • Formal vs. informal
    • Synonym vs. antonym
    • Pronoun specificity
  • Add/insert entire sentences including, but not limited to:
    • Topic sentence for the entire paper
    • Topic sentence to a paragraph
    • Closing/concluding sentences that emphasize the overall message or central idea
    • Relevant details in appropriate places
  • Add/insert single words and/or phrases including, but not limited to:
    • Transitions
  • Delete unnecessary sentences/details
  • Combine sentences into a single sentence while maintaining meaning and clarity and avoiding comma splices, run-ons, and fragments

Note:
While this is considered the third step in the writing process, revision may be ongoing throughout the writing process.

4.15D Edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric.
Readiness Standard

Edit

DRAFTS FOR GRAMMAR, MECHANICS, AND SPELLING USING A TEACHER-DEVELOPED RUBRIC

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conventions/Grammar (refer to 4.20Ai-viii,B,C)
  • Capitalization (refer to 4.21Bi-iii)
  • Punctuation (refer to 4.21Ci-ii)
  • Spelling (refer to 4.22Ai-v,B,C)
  • Use resources to find correct spellings (refer to 4.22D)
  • Previously taught expectations in grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling

Note:
This is the fourth step in the writing process. The focus is on grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

STAAR Note:
Questions related to editing may include the following written conventions in the correct answer and/or the distractors:

  • Pronoun use (e.g., I vs. me)
  • Plural vs. possessive (apostrophe use)
  • Subject/verb agreement (including compound subjects)
  • Consistent verb tense
  • Parts of speech (e.g., eagerly vs. eager)
  • Comma usage (e.g., in a series, in compound sentences, etc.)
  • Compound sentences vs. compound subject/predicate
  • Capitalization of proper nouns vs. no capital for common nouns
  • Common spelling errors (e.g., then/than, are/our, quite/quiet)
  • Homophones (e.g., to/too/two, there/their)
  • Double consonants in the middle of words (e.g., grinning, attention)
  • Extra or missing quotation marks
  • Punctuation in quotations including ending punctuation, commas, and quotation marks
  • Capitalization in quotations
  • Incomplete sentences
4.16 Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
4.16A Write imaginative stories that build the plot to a climax and contain details about the characters and setting.

Write

IMAGINATIVE STORIES THAT BUILD THE PLOT TO A CLIMAX AND CONTAIN DETAILS ABOUT THE CHARACTERS AND SETTINGS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Components of plot
  • Characters (physical traits, feelings, personality, actions, and reasons for actions)
  • Setting (time, place, and environment)

Plot – the basic sequence of events in a story. In conventional stories, plot has three main parts: rising action, climax, and falling action. The plot includes the problem and solution.

Climax – the plot’s most dramatic moment, usually the turning point

Note:
Imaginative stories can be based on real, people, events, and ideas.

The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 03/03/2016
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